Later, the US became an important international superpower, which helped to secure the English language as the most popular Germanic language. [14] The Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark, Sweden, settlements in Russia,[15] England, and Danish settlements in Normandy. The modern languages and their dialects in this group are: The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. The English language is one of the most widely spoken languages. These lexical, grammatical, and morphological similarities can be outlined in the table below. This led to different borrowings from foreign languages (Sweden had a francophone period), for example the Old Swedish word vindöga 'window' was replaced by fönster (from Middle Low German), whereas native vindue was kept in Danish. By Amber Pariona on February 15 2018 in Society. On the other hand, the word begynde 'begin' (now written begynne in Norwegian Bokmål) was borrowed into Danish and Norwegian, whereas native börja was kept in Swedish. Dialects with the features assigned to the northern group formed from the Proto-Germanic language in the late Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe. The two branches are derived from the western and eastern dialect groups of Old Norse respectively. Leinonen, Therese (2011), "Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects", Oslo Studies in Language 3 (2) Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects]", Oslo Studies in Language 3 (2); Dahl, Östen (2000). Traveller Danish, Rodi, and Swedish Romani are varieties of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish with Romani vocabulary or Para-Romani known collectively as the Scandoromani language. Swedish börja, Danish begynde), veke (cf. Scandinavian languages, also called North Germanic languages, group of Germanic languages consisting of modern standard Danish, Swedish, Norwegian (Dano-Norwegian and New Norwegian), Icelandic, and Faroese. [4] Because of the long political union between Norway and Denmark, moderate and conservative Norwegian Bokmål share most of the Danish vocabulary and grammar, and was nearly identical to written Danish until the spelling reform of 1907. Approximately 20 million people in the Nordic countries speak a Scandinavian language as their native language,[5] including an approximately 5% minority in Finland. Germanic languages are considered a subdivision of the Indo-European language family, which consists of a total of 10 subdivisions and hundreds of languages and dialects. The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: West, East and North Germanic. Branch of Germanic languages spoken predominantly in the Nordic countries, * The figure includes 450,000 members of the, Holmberg, Anders and Christer Platzack (2005). The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople. Today, Germanic languages are divided into 3 branches: East, North, and West. They do somewhat better with Danish, as they are taught Danish in school. Occurred also in East Germanic, but with a different outcome. Sweden left the Kalmar Union in 1523 due to conflicts with Denmark, leaving two Scandinavian units: The union of Denmark–Norway (ruled from Copenhagen, Denmark) and Sweden (including present-day Finland). Rowe, Charley. The oldest, understandable written record of this dialect dates back to the 9th century. Icelandic has imported fewer English words than the other North Germanic languages, despite the fact that it is the country that uses English most.[23]. Access to Danish television and radio, direct trains to Copenhagen over the Øresund Bridge and a larger number of cross-border commuters in the Øresund Region contribute to a better knowledge of spoken Danish and a better knowledge of the unique Danish words among the region's inhabitants. Dutch is spoken by the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname and is the official or co-official language of Sint Maarten, Curaçao, and Aruba. [26] Even if the language policy of Norway has been more tolerant of rural dialectal variation in formal language, the prestige dialect often referred to as "Eastern Urban Norwegian", spoken mainly in and around the Oslo region, is sometimes considered normative. These two languages were very similar and used by religious leaders to translate the Christian bible. During centuries of interaction, Finnish and Sami have imported many more loanwords from North Germanic languages than vice versa. [20] Additionally, it is the official language of 59 sovereign countries, the most common official language in the world. [13] In the 16th century, many Danes and Swedes still referred to North Germanic as a single language, which is stated in the introduction to the first Danish translation of the Bible and in Olaus Magnus' A Description of the Northern Peoples. Thus Norwegian and Swedish remained similar in pronunciation, and words like børja were able to survive in some of the Norwegian dialects whereas vindöga survived in some of the Swedish dialects. 108, 2003). The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. Dialects with the features assigned to the northern group formed from the Proto-Germanic language in the late Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe. During this period, German and Slavic tribes moved westward across the continent, invading the weakening Roman Empire. These languages are spoken in Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Greenland, Finland, Denmark, and the Faroe Islands. The Nordic Council has on several occasions referred to the (Germanic) languages spoken in Scandinavia as the "Scandinavian language" (singular); for instance, the official newsletter of the Nordic Council is written in the "Scandinavian language". In Southern Jutland in southwestern Denmark, German is also spoken by the North Schleswig Germans, and German is a recognized minority language in this region. Languages belonging to the North Germanic language tree are also commonly spoken in Greenland and, to a lesser extent, by immigrants in North America. Modern English has become one of the most widely spoken languages because it was spread around the globe with the help of the printing press and the British Empire.


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