That claim is a rebuke to every school of thought, even Chomsky’s “question everything” philosophy. It is often asserted that the Soviet government’s seizure of her father’s pharmacy while she was a child inspired her to design a philosophical framework of her own which is often referred to as Randianism but which she called Objectivism. In so doing she reframed the debate from focusing on the rights of the fetus to those of the parent. This list will be focusing on philosophers from the previous century. Lately you hear the word “deconstruction” thrown around a lot in regards to media with some form of meta-commentary (e.g., a superhero movie where the filmmakers have the characters comment on the supposedly fascistic power fantasy nature of superhero narratives within the movie’s dialogue). Even William Gaston, a domestic policy adviser to Bill Clinton for two years, was a student of him. Derrida said that was functionally impossible, as the education any analyst had received would introduce biases that would impact their views one way or another. One of the core values of Chomsky’s political commentary and his stated views on language is to always question the narrative being provided. Chomsky’s core beliefs relate to how controlling media (news coverage, commonly employed phrases and the words that back them, etc.) It wasn’t until she read the work of Ellen Key that she began to think of women as deserving equal rights for purposes of autonomy and individualism. Her books The Fountainhead, We the Living, Anthem, and Atlas Shrugged are all endlessly derided and bought. In the 20th century, philosophy increasingly became professionalized as the period witnessed the development of a number of new philosophical schools including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and post-structuralism. There’s a joke about a degree in philosophy where the people majoring in it get asked, “would you like fries with that?” Getting a degree in philosophy is supposed to be such a waste of time and money because philosophy ostensibly does not provide a utilitarian skill set. Even among the circle that knew him at the time he was more polarizing than most. This list will be focusing on philosophers from the previous century. With this segment, explore some of the famous philosophers of the 20th century. . Liked it? Leo Strauss has not become a household name since his death in 1973. It wasn’t until she read the work of Ellen Key that she began to think of women as deserving equal rights for purposes of autonomy and individualism. Born in Paris in 1905, his body of work would, by the time of his death in 1980, includes books and plays such as Being and Nothingness and The Flies, which were key to spreading existential philosophy around the world. Film director, Writer, Actor, Poet, Screenwriter, Philosopher, Writer, Novelist, Podcaster, YouTuber, Philosopher, Historian, Writer, University. This list will be focusing on philosophers from the previous century. Strauss is more influential because he was read by a few at the top than by many at the bottom or in the middle. Derrida’s seemingly detached central tenet didn’t mean he avoided controversial opinions, since he was an admirer of Karl Marx and Nazi Party member Martin Heidegger. Wittgenstein laid out the Picture Theory of Meaning in his 1921 book Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, which in brief said that unless a statement could be translated from an abstraction into an “arrangement of objects” then it had no meaning. It was a literalism that could be expected of a philosophically-minded engineer and which he also applied to the classroom, having students perform such hands-on learning as constructing models and dissecting animals (and applying corporal punishment to a degree that compelled him to lie about it and quit his job). Even though Camus treats the struggle against the plague as absurd, it’s clear that the resisting characters have his sympathies. Sartre was not positive about this state being, calling it “anguish.” Little wonder he felt Hell is other people. Meaning, of course, that he indirectly helped write the blueprints for much more destructive German fascism. Some of these names will be familiar, but as we’ve learned time and again, Born in Vienna, Austria in 1889 to a wealthy family of musicians, in his youth the strongest desire of Wittgenstein’s heart was to work in engineering; specifically as it related to the infant technology of, Wittgenstein happened to get hung up on pure mathematics and went to Cambridge to be taught by Bertrand Russell himself. It was while working in education that he would write the essays that made him famous with the English-speaking world. If Derrida’s philosophical insight that made him so influential were to be reduced to a logline (and bear in mind that this is someone who wrote 70 books and countless essays), it would be to critique other writers who claimed they were being objective. Back in 1968 in a televised debate with, (who TopTenz readers will remember threatened. to use the threat of arrest to coerce citizens to give tax money that would be used to help the needy) is itself amoral. Morality cannot be forced on anyone, and to use the threat of physical violence to compel people to act morally (e.g. What is life? 20th century stars From presidents and royals to musicians and movie stars, we’ve identified the most famous person born every year of the 20th century, as … So why not commit suicide instead? In its way, Camus’s absurdist philosophy is a optimistic and accepting form of nihilism. . In 1920 she founded the New Woman’s Association. People will act ethically because it is in the best interest of capitalism for them to treat everyone ethically, so that others will treat them ethically. He argued that society needed to have its “noble lies,” which was what Strauss considered religion, so that the lower classes would remain productive. It would be during a 1908 retreat in Norway, in a cabin he built, that Wittgenstein would have the inspiration for the “Picture Theory of Meaning” that would make him famous after he fought in World War I and got a job as an elementary school teacher for six years in 1920 because he’d divested himself of his inheritance in 1919. His most famous play, No Exit, coined the popular expression “hell is other people.” Sartre rejected the label of existentialist for a time, and in 1964 he rejected the Nobel Prize in literature, criticizing its Eurocentrism (he came to regret this latter rejection in particular, saying he could have donated the prize money to an anti-Apartheid committee in London). Philosophers born in the 19th century (and others important in the history of philosophy), listed alphabetically: Privacy Policy | TopTenz T-Shirts | Sponsors. In 1908, she scandalously accompanied her (platonic) best friend to a mountain for a ritual suicide with an attitude of curiosity about what it was like to die, and because she suspected her partner would lose his willingness to kill himself when push came to shove. If yes, then your mind and heart surely takes a philosophical route whenever free. First termed by Pythagoras, philosophy encompasses a huge body of knowledge. 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