(2002). In this phase, the normalized results are multiplied with “weight factors” that express the importance intended as critical issues, which is attributed to each environmental problem. 20.4. Impacts at one node often depend on activities at other nodes, and improvement options for food industry might often involve changes that result in large savings at other nodes rather than for the industry’s own emissions. In the next section, we describe a methodology to undertake a complete assessment of the food supply chain using sustainability indicators and applying it to a product sector level, rather than a firm level. However, for novel processes or products, the LCA methodology needs to be adapted to the specific circumstances and questions posed. In organic agricultural systems, livestock have more freedom of activity resulting in a higher feed-to-gain ratio. The various methods share a common approach but include many different indicators to illustrate the environmental impact of production. Data quality analysis is made to develop a better understanding of the reliability of the indicator results in the LCIA profile (analysis frequently adopted). However, the three dimensions of sustainability have seen some integration into supply-chain analysis for a number of years (New, 1997; Karna and Heiskanen, 1998; Sarkis, 2001b). A quadratic programming model optimizes the FSC structure, locating the storage, handling and processing plants and allocating the product and energy flows, from the farmers/crops to the groceries/final markets. Sloan, in Environmental Assessment and Management in the Food Industry, 2010. This chapter examines each method and uses examples to show how they can be used within the food sector. It has been widely applied to reporting practices within the industry and is promoted by voluntary initiatives such as the Global Reporting Initiative and AA1000 Assurance Standard. Several tools have been developed for execution of benchmarking at various levels (either single process within a link or an entire supply chain) such as: flowcharts, cause-and-effect diagrams, radar/spider charts, and Z charts (Camp, 1995), the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) business excellence model, the balanced scorecard, service quality (SERVQUAL) framework, gap analysis, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), scatter diagrams (Min and Galle, 1996; Ahmed and Rafiq, 1998), computational geometry (Talluri and Sarkis, 2001), data envelopment analysis (DEA) (Zhu, 2002), combination of dependency analysis approach and software tool (TETRAD) with DEA (Reiner and Hofmann, 2006) and the Operational Competitiveness Ratings Analysis (OCRA) (Jayanthi et al., 1999; Oral, 1993; Parkan, 1994). By the year 2050 the world’s population will increase 33% to 10 billion. To put things in context, if food packaging were a ten-storey building, food/ drink production would be a skyscraper more than 68 storeys tall, and food miles a building less than a storey high. Which foods used the most and least... Eutrophication. Finally, measuring sustainability performance itself raises challenges. For example, share of carrots is 7.5% and share of onions 7.3%. From a life cycle standpoint, the packaging systems with lower material intensity become the preferred option because of their lower environmental impacts. Footprinting has only a short history, but from the original introduction of ecological footprinting in 1995, the methodology has expanded to include water footprinting, carbon footprinting and latterly environmental and nitrogen footprinting. Developed frameworks for analysis of sustainability parameters in a supply chain usually cover economic and environmental dimensions (e.g. Yet, some challenges arise from the difficulty of measuring performance across organisations, for example due to non-standardised data. Given the recent technology developments in packaging, life cycle studies should potentially consider the influence of utilising different packaging options in extending the shelf life of the product. Top ten wasted foods in the UK by ecological impact, created by combining data from WRAP (2008) with the EF factors of Barrett et al. (2002). The use of EFA to measure resource use is becoming established and a growing number of academics and practitioners now use the methodology. Environmental impacts of food production Land Use. Identification of the key parameters in a life cycle packaging study is a potential solution to this limitation. Significant work has been completed on development and application of sustainability indicators (Bell and Morse, 1999; Pintér et al., 2005). This figure shows the large impact of wasted meat or fish-containing meals and, more surprisingly, that many of the low EF factor foods from Fig. Marco Bortolini, ... Francesco Pilati, in Sustainable Food Supply Chains, 2019. Different developments, like the responsible soy initiative, aim at global solutions to improve the sustainability of agricultural food production. Hence evaluation of packaging systems using a life cycle framework in the future must consider such inter-links between the life cycle stages, and the trade-offs involved in material and energy investment during packaging production and food protection and shelf life. This is also due to the fact that agriculture is the life cycle stage with higher contributions in most of the impact categories in food LCA (Castellani et al., 2017). Usually this phase is performed by specific commercial software, frequently used for LCA of food packaging systems, which are reported later. Since EFA compares the footprint with biocapacity, when a population’s footprint is greater than the earth’s biocapacity, we have a non-sustainable situation referred to as ecological overshoot. Franklin Associates, Australian Life Cycle Inventory and Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe) in the past decade, the data constraint problem has been alleviated to a certain extent. Comparison of shares of impacts due to food waste in the different impact categories are reported in Table 11.12. These feed ingredients can be whole crops (e.g., grains, rapeseed, peas, and soybeans) or by-products (e.g., pulp and milling products). Using this information allows a new figure to be created showing the actual worse food types by total ecological impact (Fig. The main force driving this increase seems to be the local food movement, and the desire of consumers to reduce environmental impacts of food production and concerns about animal welfare. This must be considered when assessing food products, and Life cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well established tool for such analyses. Sustainability indicators may take on a number of perspectives, sometimes depending on the definition of sustainability. LCIA, according with ISO 14044 (2006), aims at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LCI flow results.


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