Remote sensing technology is an essential link in the global monitoring of the ocean surface, and radars are efficient sensors for detecting marine pollution. the measurement, resulting in an incorrect reading, Regular monitoring of the paper insulation of electrical windings The dielectric spectra of each animal fat were measured in the radio frequency of 100 Hz-100 kHz at 45°C to 55°C. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric constants and dielectric loss factors were determined for coconut, peanut, soya bean, sunflower, palm, and olive oils. 0000005669 00000 n The kinematic viscosity of the ester is 0.98 × 10⁻¹¹ mm² S⁻¹, which is far less than the viscosity of the raw oil. Their specific properties and chemical composition have allowed them to be used as food, lubricants, fuels and in the manufacturing of agrochemicals, plasticisers, inks, and coatings. Sealed steel aging vessels containing copper, aluminum, dried thermally upgraded Kraft paper, and dielectric fluid (transformer oil or natural ester) were aged at 160 and 170°C for 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and 3000 hours. These results confirm that MESSO can be developed as an alternative to mineral oils for insulation and cooling in transformers. Experiential physical properties like density, refractive index and εr were significantly correlated with the pragmatic peroxide value. The increase in demand for biodegradable lubricants is related to the evolution of environmental regulations, with more restrictive rules being implemented to minimize environmental impact caused by inappropriate disposal. Microwave irradiation is widely used as a source of heating in various applications such as food processing as well as many organic synthesis systems. specific to the paper and cannot be produced by general oxidation of the 0000006315 00000 n The dielectric relaxation spectroscopy allowed identifying the α-relaxation process with a 193.5 K glass transition (T g ), 63.2 fragility index and 234.1 kJ mol ⁻¹ activation energy associated with T g from the dynamic fragility index. The aim was to examine the influence of reaction parameters on the effectiveness of hydrolysis, as well as to determine the relationship between the degree of completion of hydrolysis and FAME yields. However, not many reviews have described the potential application of chemical synthesis that uses enzymes as catalyst, especially in relation to the microwave processing aspects and their dielectric properties. of oxygen. 0000001719 00000 n Comparative analyses for BD1, BD2, and kerosene have been studied to assess the performance in terms of material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and relative wear ratio (RWR) for P20 + cold-worked plastic injection mold steel using electrolytic grade copper electrode. Nearly all load bearing transformers in electric power delivery systems around the world are filled with liquid. This result suggests Measurements of viscosity were also undertaken to supplement the spectroscopic data. PCA classification plot showed clear performance in classifying different animal fats. Research results indicate that high FFA yields (98 wt%) are achieved at 12 MPa and 250 °C and 1:20 oil-to-water molar ratio. The physical, chemical and electrical properties were measured as per International Standards for assessing its suitability as an insulating liquid in transformers. Microwave technology has the potential to significantly enhance chemical reaction and knowledge of dielectric properties of materials plays a major role in microwave design for any process. We report It is concluded that the activation energy method is quicker and less expensive therefore it could be useful to obtain new information about a new vegetable oil for paper/oil insulations. Physical properties like relative viscosity, refractive index and electric dipole moment of oil solution were used to estimate; apparent molecular relaxation time, polarization of oil solution using Wyman's analyses. This paper focused on the effect of ageing on the electrical and physicochemical properties of PO, CO, and RBO. The total combustible gas in ricinnus oil is a little bit higher than one in mineral oil. This paper deals with analyses of chemical structure and real and imaginary parts of complex permittivity of sunflower, rapeseed and commonly used mineral oil. The two vegetable oils have nearly the same dielectric constant which is relatively higher than that found in the off-line methods such as HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) It is rather inflammable and dangerous for living environment. Results show that the dielectric properties vary with oil type at a given frequency and also with frequency for a given oil. 0000004719 00000 n close to the peak in tan δ is very unstable. suitable for monitoring of transformer winding insulation. When used operationally by authorities, a tradeoff must usually be made between the covered area and the quantity of information collected by the radar. Bio-based lubricants have been found to exhibit superior lubricant properties over the conventional mineral lubricants, with renewability and biodegradability being their strongest suit. In this paper, a comprehensive over view of dielectric fluids used in EDM to make the process sustainable has been reported. Linear discriminant analysis was used to distinguish flaxseed oil from other adulterants based on dielectric spectra, and the oil samples were easily grouped in different clusters. Transformers in electric power distribution and transmission systems are expected to function reliably and efficiently and to do this for many years. 0000002253 00000 n 0000007599 00000 n The dielectric behavior of samples of IO19 oil under the influence of temperature and frequency is investigated to check for its suitability in an insulation system. As opposed to conventional dipole-based RFID tags, the loop-based antenna is less affected by liquid. Dielectric constants and loss tangents of four common edible oils – mustard oil, olive oil, sesame oil and canola oil are measured in the 9–15 GHz range using cavity perturbation. 0000001051 00000 n The thermo-physical properties of the newly developed transformer oil based nanofluids reported in comparison with different oils. temperature (26~ of some common vegetable oils and their dipole character has been established by studying the variation of the dielectric constant of their solution in benzene as a function of their concentration. This paper mainly focuses on a comparative study of ac breakdown voltage, dielectric constant, dissipation factor (tan δ) and resistivity of five different types of natural ester liquid under a variation of temperature. The finding suggests that the physical properties like fire point, pour point, and viscosity are very much affected by the molecular weight and molecular composition of the polyol esters. The measured commonly used mineral oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons produced from crude oil and belongs to the group of naphthenic oils consisting mainly of cycloalkanes. Suitability of dielectric constant was measured using designed layered capacitive cell in the quality analysis of palm, peanut and corn oil after three cycles of heating up to 190 °C of temperature. This chapter also includes detailed discussion of vegetable esters of different origin and their suitability as a liquid insulator. These special types of oils are widely used in high voltage apparatus such as power transformers, high voltage capacitors and circuit breakers. In this paper we report on the ageing behavior of dodecylbenzene, mineral oil and a range of different vegetable oils. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (PME) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) was conducted at 110 - 130 ℃ for 90 min under vacuum condition. The yield was 93.3% (v/v) at reaction time of 24 h, catalyst concentration of 4.5 wt% and methanol to oil volume ratio of 6:1. This study provides an overview of the types, production routes, properties, and applications of biolubricants. The dielectric constants were determined at 30 meters (10,000 Kc.) Dielectric constant (εr) of oil samples increases with cycles of heating. Last couple of decades has seen success in the development of natural esters as dielectric coolants for use in transformers. Wide varieties of dielectric fluids (based on water, gas and emulsions) have been used to make the EDM process sustainable. This paper proposed a versatile and flexible UHF RFID tag for liquid products with glass bottles. Transformer oil is used around the world, but the emphasis here is on practices in the United States. 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