He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, thus the brother of Marie Antoinette. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy and extended his realm's borders to the north, east, and south. Returning to Germany in 1132, he fought Lothar until 1135, when he submitted, was pardoned, and recovered his estates. While marching to reclaim the city in 1002, however, Otto III suffered a sudden fever and died in a castle near Civita Castellana at the age of 21. When Peace returned at the end of it all, Austria could not be said to have emerged as triumphant as it did from the war against the Turks. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among the other Roman Catholic monarchs; in practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances made him. Otto finally returned to Germany in August 972 and died of natural causes in 973. Charles III -  Holy Roman Emperor - 881-887. In Diocletian's Tetrarchy, the traditional seniorities were maintained: "Augustus" was reserved for the two senior emperors and "Caesar" for the two junior emperors – each delegated a share of power and responsibility but each an emperor-in-waiting, should anything befall his senior. Pius Felix (Invictus) Augustus: NN representing the individual's personal name; Pius Felix meaning "Pious and Blest"; and Invictus meaning "undefeated". The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. Domnica, Wife of the Emperor Valens-E-Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.) Epiphania (daughter of Heraclius) Eudocia (third wife of Constantine V) Eudocia (daughter of Valentinian III) Eudocia (First Wife of Justinian II) Licinia Eudoxia (wife of Valentinian III) Eugenius (303/4 A.D) Flavius Eugenius (392- 394 A.D.) Euphemia (wife of Justin I) [19], The immediate response of the Eastern Roman emperor was not welcoming. He consolidated his power by cultivating personal and political ties with the Catholic Church. Although known as the Byzantine Empire by contemporary historians, the Empire was simply known as the Roman Empire to its citizens and neighboring countries. His person was held to be sacred. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was notably the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in over three centuries, which proves the fact that the Title was purely elective not hereditary. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto II was the youngest and sole surviving son of Otto the Great and Adelaide of Italy. Otto's later years were marked by conflicts with the Papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. Rudolf II (July 18, 1552 – January 20, 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608). Nevertheless, contemporary opinion of him was not nearly so negative as modern historiographical opinion. He was frequently at war with the Papacy, hemmed in between Frederick's lands in northern Italy and his Kingdom of Sicily (the Regno) to the south, and thus he was excommunicated four times and often vilified in pro-papal chronicles of the time and since. His rule coincided with the Thirty Years' War. Through donations to the Church and the establishment of new dioceses, Henry strengthened imperial rule across the Empire and increased control over ecclesiastical affairs. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last reigning Roman emperor. In reality, however, the title is more symbolic, as many states would resist any attempt to assert dominance (this has been a frequent cause of civil wars in the past). Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II - 1619-1637. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Usually considered lethargic and inept – he is known to have had repeated illnesses and is believed to have suffered from epilepsy – he twice purchased peace with Viking raiders, including at the famous siege of Paris in 886. The nature of the imperial office and the Principate was established under Julius Caesar's heir and posthumously adopted son, Augustus, and his own heirs, the descendants of his wife Livia from her first marriage to a scion of the distinguished Claudian clan. The position of emperor was increasingly influenced by Near Eastern concepts of kingship. The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne became king in 768 following the death of his father. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous; however, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. Louis IV was Duke of Upper Bavaria from 1294 /1301 together with his elder brother Rudolf I, served as Margrave of Brandenburg until 1323 and as Count Palatine of the Rhine until 1329, and became Duke of Lower Bavaria in 1340 and Count of Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland in 1345. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold. He was also King of Italy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary and Bohemia as Francis I. On 16 July 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in Pressburg (Pozsony). Henry III (28 October 1017 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. Since his father Philip died in 1506, Charles succeeded Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, and thus ruled both the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish Empire simultaneously. The ruling emperor's title was the descriptive Augustus ("majestic" or "venerable", which had tinges of the divine), which was adopted upon accession. Other kings were then referred to as rēgas.[5]. These are denoted by the Rival next to their names. "[20], Nikephoros I chose to ignore Charlemagne's claim to the imperial title, clearly recognizing the implications of this act. When emperor Theodosius I died, his sons Arcadius and Honorius, already proclaimed augusti, succeeded him. He succeeded to the imperial throne and that of Bohemia when his father died.


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